0.1% Ultra-High-Precision Pressure Control Solution in the Range of Gauge Pressure 0.1~0.6MPa and Its Assessment Test Results

0.1% Ultra-High-Precision Pressure Control Solution in the Range of Gauge Pressure 0.1~0.6MPa and Its Assessment Test Results

1. Introduction of Electronic Air Pressure Regulator
In order to meet the needs of 0.1% ultra-high-precision pressure control in industrial applications, we propose corresponding solutions. We introduce the solution in detail, and also introduce the evaluation test device built based on solution and test results to demonstrate the realization effect of this solution on 0.1% ultra-high-precision pressure control.

2. How to solve the problem of Electronic Air Pressure Regulator?
The core of solution is based on electronic air pressure regulator, and pressure control accuracy of electronic air pressure regulator is generally not high, so by connecting a higher-precision pressure sensor and PID controller to reach ultra-high-precision pressure control. In order to verify the feasibility of this solution, which especially to verify the impact of ultra-high-precision PID controller on precision control, we have carried out corresponding assessment tests. The structure of assessment test device is shown in Figure 1.

The assessment test device mainly includes the following parts:
(1) Pressure sensor: The accuracy is 0.05%, the range is absolute pressure 0.1~1MPa, and the corresponding voltage output is 0~10V.
(2) Electronic air pressure regulator: The accuracy is 0.25%, range is absolute pressure 0.1~1MPa, control voltage is 0~10V.
(3) PID controller: ADC is 24 bits, DAC is 16 bits, ADC range is 0~10V, DAC range is 0~10V.
(4) Multi-channel data collector: Agilent 34972A, five-and-a-half/six-and-a-half-digit acquisition.
(5) Three-way pipe fitting: Used as a pressure vessel and connected to a pressure sensor and an electronic air pressure regulator.
(6) Computer: It is used to communicate with PID controller and data collector, installing and running the corresponding software programs to control, collect, display and store PID controller and data collector.

According to our previous assessment test and control process data analysis, we believe that the industrial integrated PID controller instrument needs to meet the following technical indicators in order to reach a control accuracy of 0.1%:
(1) The external sensor must have an ultra-high precision of more than 0.1%.
(2) The external actuator also needs to have high precision, but it does not necessarily require ultra-high precision of 0.1%.
(3) PID controller needs to be at least 16 bits, and the best is 24 bits.
(4) The floating-point operation of PID controller should ensure that output percentage has an adjustment capability of 0.01% to 0.05%.
(5) The number of DAC bits of PID controller needs to reach at least 14 bits, and the best is 16 bits. It can be seen from the above requirements for technical indicators and test results that in order to reach ultra-high-precision pressure control, on the premise that external pressure sensor, air electronic proportional pressure regulator and PID controller meet the accuracy requirements. The control output of PID controller and Floating point operations must also have sufficient precision. To this end, we adopted a PID controller with 16-bit output precision, and correspondingly improved the precision of floating-point operations. Corresponding to this improvement is to increase the minimum percentage of control output from 0.1% to 0.01%, also the percentage of control output from one decimal place to two decimal places.

3. The test result of Electronic Air Pressure Regulator
The pressure constant control test was carried out in the gauge pressure range of 0.1~0.6MPa through the above-mentioned test device. The pressure set points are 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 MPa respectively in order to observe the influence of output percentage of PID controller and control voltage on constant pressure control and the corresponding relationship. We can see the following conclusions:
(1) In the entire pressure range of 0.1~0.6MPa, the fluctuation rate can be controlled within the range of 0.1%.
(2) Especially in the higher pressure range of 0.3~0.6MPa, the fluctuation rate can even be stably controlled within 0.05%.
(3) Observing the control process of the entire pressure range, it can be found that after the pressure control is stable, the change range of the output percentage of the controller is basically ±0.01%. This shows that the use of 16-bit DAC and the increase of floating-point arithmetic precision have a very obvious effect on improving the control precision.
(4) In the low pressure range of 0.1~0.2MPa, the self-tuning PID parameters can be used to control the fluctuation rate of 0.1%, but if the control parameters are further optimized, the control accuracy can be further improved. Based on the above conclusions, we simply optimized the parameters of PID controller, and performed constant pressure control in the low-range 0.1~0.2MPa pressure range.

The fluctuation rate of 0.2MPa set point control is effectively reduced to 0.05%, while the fluctuation rate of the 0.1MPa set point control remains basically unchanged at 0.1%. Sometimes it even occasionally more than 0.1%. However, by observing the control voltage curve, we can find that in the process of constant voltage control with a set point of 0.1MPa. The fluctuation rate of control voltage is basically within 0.05%, and pressure fluctuation changes to 0.1%, which may be the influence of other external factors, such as the influence of ambient temperature, pressure sensor and electrical proportional valve accuracy. After all, at 0.1MPa pressure, the internal pressure of three-way pipe fittings is more easily affected by the ambient temperature, and this 0.1MPa pressure is also higher than the accuracy of pressure sensor and the poor range of electronic air pressure regulator.

4. Conclusion
Through the above solution and assessment test results, it is proved that this solution can fully reach 0.1% ultra-high-precision pressure control. The specific conclusions are as follows:
(1) The external ultra-high-precision pressure sensor and PID controller can effectively improve the pressure control accuracy of electronic air pressure regulator, and can reach 0.1% ultra-high-precision pressure control.
(2) It fully reaches the technical index of 0.1% of KaoLu’s electronic air pressure regulator, especially in the pressure range above 0.2MPa, and can even reach a higher control accuracy of 0.05%.
(3) In the process of pressure control with ultra-high accuracy of 0.1%, the measurement accuracy, control accuracy and floating-point operation of PID controller are the key technical indicators that determine the overall control accuracy. The solution described in this article uses 24-bit ADC. The output percentage of 0.01% of bit DAC and high-precision floating-point operation proves that it can fully meet the needs of ultra-high-precision control.
(4) Through the solution and experimental verification in this article, it is proved that the industrial 0.1% ultra-high-precision PID controller can completely reach ultra-high-precision control at a lower cost, and can also be used to control the other parameters in industrial fields.

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